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The classic 220-kilometer Annapurna Circuit has attracted thousands of trekkers over the 45-year time span since it was first opened in the late 1970’s . This slice of the world’s greatest mountain range, the Himalayas, belongs on any list of the great long-distance walks in the world.
But as with all things, this region of Nepal has not been exempt from the forces of change and progress – and from a trekker’s standpoint it does not look to be positive. Roads now stretch deep into an area that was once accessible only by the age-old footpaths which both locals and visitors – from Tibetan traders to the more recent trekkers – have used to walk from one village to another all around the Annapurna mountain range.
For the locals, building the roads for buses and jeeps means easier travel to see relatives in neighbouring villages or for purposes of trade; it also means that the goods that make their way up from the highway can be moved more quickly and cheaply. However, many of the villages are heavily dependent on the steady stream of trekkers passing through.
Since the Annapurna Circuit is very much a teahouse trek, there exists an extensive infrastructure which caters to these visitors. As more and more traffic makes its way up the road that once was the trekking trail, it becomes that much less appealing. Noise, dust, and general commotion are not what the trekkers were looking for!
To walk the Annapurna Circuit, you must first make your way to the mountain nation of Nepal, which sits on the top of India and to the south of Tibet. From the Tarai, the lowland farming area along its border with India where almost 50% of Nepal’s thirty million inhabitants live, the land slopes up to the Middle Hill country and then to the Himalayas themselves. Many of the world’s fifty highest mountain peaks can be found somewhere near the border that Nepal shares with Tibet.
Your entry to Nepal will probably be at Kathmandu’s airport. The above map gives you a general idea of where Kathmandu is situated in relation to the Annapurna region – and to the east of the capital city is the other major trekking destination, Sagarmatha National Park and the Mount Everest region. Check out this interactive Google map if you want more detail.
The broken green lines on the map below trace the mid-2000’s version of the Annapurna Circuit route, which takes you through always-changing terrain and through villages belonging to a variety of cultural groups. Our three-week trek started at Besi Sahar and finished on the other side of the Annapurna Massif at Birethati. The original route actually started in Dumre and ended about 23 days later in Pokhara, since there was not yet a road which went up to Jomsom and Muktinath.
A detailed map (1:125,000 scale) of the Annapurna Circuit can be downloaded here. It is a 5.6 mb file (5223 x 3638 pixels). The one thing to remember is that the map dates back to 2002 and will not show the road construction since 2000. Since we are not talking a wilderness walk here, it would really be all that someone would need to do the circuit.
It was in the late 1980’s that a road was built from Dumre up to Besi Sahar and it became the new Annapurna Circuit trailhead. Clearly the last forty years have seen many changes in Annapurna region. I’m sure that already in the early 1990’s potential Annapurna Circuit trekkers were asking if it was still worth doing. Note the direction of travel – the Annapurna Circuit is done in a counter-clockwise direction so that your body has time (i.e. about ten days) to acclimatize to the increasing altitude, so that crossing Thorung La, the major pass of the trek at 5416m (17,769 feet) does not become an issue.
Even when I did the trek in October of 2006, the “trail” from the pilgrimage center of Muktinath to Jomsom and on down to Tatopani was often a dusty gravel road that we shared with buses and jeeps and motorcycles; now a new road has been opened on the other side of the Annapurnas that allows you to drive right to Chame, the first section of the trail that used to make up the first week or so of the classic “back-in-the-day” Annapurna Circuit.
Itineraries of Three U.K. and North American Adventure Travel Companies:
Take a look at a new (May 2016) KE Adventure Travel offering – The Ultimate Annapurna Trek – and you’ll see that the idea of a circuit has been abandoned. Instead of Besi Sahar as the start point it is now higher up at Dharapani and once at Jomsom it is a jeep ride down to Tatopani. What has been added is an Annapurna Base Camp side trip. Not a bad solution to the road issue!
This is an improvement over another KE package – ashorter trek that only includes the stretch from Dharapani to Jomsom. (See here for the map and itinerary.) From Jomsom it was a flight back to Pokhara! To be fair, the word “Circuit” was not used to describe their route; it is called “Annapurna and the Thorung La Lodge Trek”. KE is just one of many excellent-quality and fairly expensive agencies out there adjusting their product to make it more marketable.
The adventure travel company which organized my trip, Gap Adventures (now called G Adventures thanks to a lawsuit by that famous American clothing company!), has also abbreviated its Circuit itinerary. It now begins at Jagat (1300 m) instead of Besi Sahar (820 m). Eliminated is twenty-five kilometers of the trail and the first two days of the classic trek. See here for their current itinerary, which ends at Nayapul. From there it a jeep ride back to Pohkara.
Of the adventure travel companies mentioned above, KE was the only one to use tents instead of the guest houses or teahouses for the trek. Given the abundance of inexpensive and acceptable accommodation, sleeping in a tent will always be a poor second choice and way more trouble than it is worth. The new KE offering now makes use of the lodges.
I have often used another U.K.-based one called Exodus. Their Annapurna Circuit info can be accessed here. Of the three U.K./North American adventure travel companies mentioned here, Exodus is the only one which still offers the full trek from Besi Sahar. See their map below –
Now, the shortened itineraries may just be the way some adventure travel companies structure this trek so that people who cannot make the major three-week-plus time commitment that the classic route involves can still do the best of the circuit. Just as likely is that it is a response to the “trails to roads” development and the desire to avoid walking these dusty, busy stretches.
Road Construction In the Upper Marsyandhi Valley:
This BBC article, Nepal’s Shrinking Annapurna Circuit, from May 2011 examines the potential impact on the Annapurna Circuit of the road from Chame to Manang. It makes for disturbing reading from a trekker’s point of view.
Already intrepid adventurers are joining locals as they motorcycle their way from Chame to Manang on a partly finished road. Here is a WordPress blog post which describes the road and the ride! (Update: the link is dead as of May 2016.) Check out this post instead for an account of a ride done in May of 2015.)
A thread in the Lonely Planet Thorntree Forum section (started June 2014) titled Transport Logistics to Chame for AC Trek has contributions from a number of trekkers or riders who have been up or down the stretch from Besi Sahar to Chame in 2014. It is worth checking out for more up-to-date information to help you decide whether going up by vehicle is what you want to do!
A Kathmandu Post article from Dec. 31, 2012 entitled Chame Road, Harbinger of Development nicely summarizes the positives and negatives which the opening of the road has brought. Also mentioned in the article is the need for an alternative trekking route to replace the old one which has become a gravel road with bus and truck and motorcycle traffic. (See below for just such an alternative!)
The Google satellite map below shows the road is almost up to E on the first part of the circuit and a road is indicated almost all the way to Muktinath on the west side. This leaves the top third, the above-the-tree-line alpine stretch from Chame to Manang to Thorung La to Muktinath as the road-free section of what seems to be left of the Annapurna Circuit.
So the big question these days is – Is the Annapurna Circuit still worth doing? The short answer is – Absolutely!
While there is no going back to the past, what is still there waiting to be experienced makes the journey worth your while. Even better is the work being done by the Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP) and people like Andrees de Ruiter (his website here), a Belgian trekker whose visits to the Annapurna region over the past thirty years make him very familiar with the situation and the response necessary.
The answer he has worked on along with a Nepali trekking guide Prem Rai and members of the ACAP during the past few years is the New Annapurna Trekking Trail (NATT for short). Their commitment to establishing a viable new Annapurna Circuit resulted in this 2011 first edition of the guide-book Trekking The Annapurna Circuit (Including NATT – Trails Which Avoid The Road), which is available for free online in pdf form. Click here.
A more detailed second edition complete with useful maps was published in early September 2013 and is available here at Amazon in Kindle ebook form. Given the time and money that trekkers will have spent on getting to the trailhead, the $7.50 investment in the guidebook should ensure that they have the information needed to get the most out of the time spent in the Annapurna region.
Update – on seeing this post and the abbreviated tours being offered by the various travel adventure companies mentioned above, Andrees de Ruiter sent me this suggested itinerary which trekkers could do on their own in about the same amount of time. Here it is-
- Day 1: From Kathmandu (1400m) drive to Besi Sahar (850m)
- Day 2: Jeep Besi Sahar to Chame (2670m): (it is absolutely necessary to stay one night in Chame for acclimatization)
- Day 3: Chame to upper Pisang (3350)
- Day 4: Upper Pisang to Gyaru to Ngawal (3680m)
- Day 5: Ngawal to Julu to Braka (3470 m)
- Day 6: Braka to Manang (3500 m)
- Day 7: Manang to Yakkharka (4020 m) or Churi Lethar 4200m)
- Day 8: Yakkharka to Thorong Phedi or High Camp* (4529m /4890 m) (* high Camp only if you stayed in Churi Lethar)
- Day 9: Thorong Phedi to Muktinath
- Day 10: Muktinath to Jhong to Kagbeni
- Day 11: Shortest, Kagbeni Jomsom then Bus to Tatopani 1 day
- Day 11: Kagbeni to Jomsom to Marpha
- Day 12: Bus to Tatopani, evening in the hot springs
- Day 13: Tatopani to Pokhara by bus
Allowing at least one extra “just-in-case” day in the schedule you would need 14 days to get from Kathmandu to Pokhara, and another one to get back to Kathmandu. This would still be a fantastic journey with good acclimatization with less than 3 hours spent on the dirt road! It also offers more than the Annapurna Circuit tours by the various agencies mentioned above.
So there you have it – from 23 days to do the Annapurna Circuit back in the late 1970’s to 13 days in 2013. Maybe the big question these days is – Will I be able to Facebook or send hourly tweets about my progress? Seriously though, it is certainly an indication of how the pace of life has accelerated and how vacation time for most people has shrunk.
One more thought on the above compromise itinerary – If you are okay with the idea of starting a bit higher up than Besi Sahar on the Marsyandhi side and with catching a ride either from Jomson on Day 11 or Marpha on Day 12 but still want to spend more time in the Annapurnas away from the road, there is the excellent walk from Ghorepani to Annapurna Base Camp – with nary a road or vehicle in sight. See the map below for the route –
This would give you a 100% chance to savour those very elements of an Annapurna Circuit trek that many say have been ruined by the dust and noise of buses and jeeps and motorcycles on the road. (May 2016 Update – Ke Adventure Travel now offers a trek that does exactly what my paragraph above suggested.)
Another answer to the question of whether the Circuit trek is still worth it is – it all depends!
A classic dilemma for trekkers bound for Nepal with a limited amount of time is this – Do I do the Annapurna Circuit or should I do an extended trek in Sagarmatha National Park (i.e. Khumbu and the Everest region)? Luckily, I did not have to come up with an answer – I just did both of them back-to-back with a few days in Kathmandu in between!
Based on my experience, I can offer the following points of comparison between the two which may help you decide which to choose-
Popularity: The most recent available statistics indicate that the Annapurna Circuit attracts more trekkers than the various trekking options available in Sagarmatha National Park. A Google search turned up figures of 80,000 for 2009 and 89,000 for 2010, with a low of 36,000 in 2005 during the worst of the Maoist insurgency. Sagarmatha/Everest trekkers, on the other hand, numbered about 25,000 in 2010, which was still quite a bit busier than the 7,500 who visited the Everest region in the pre-Into Thin Air days of 1989! The factors below may explain why more than twice as many people head to Pokhara instead of Lukla for their Nepal trekking adventure.
Cost: Trekking Everest is a bit more expensive than trekking Annapurna. Instead of busing to Dumre you will have to arrange a flight to Lukla. (You could always begin your Everest adventure by busing to Jiri and then walking to Lukla from there but that involves an extra week and has expenses of its own.) Bringing in supplies to the Khumbu region is more expensive than bringing them to Pokhara and the Annapurnas on the highway from Kathmandu. My G-Adventures Annapurna walk cost about 40% less than my Exodus- organized Everest trek.
A major reason is that my Everest trek was a tent-based one with all the food and gear moved along by yaks and porters; the Annapurna Circuit is very much a teahouse (i.e. lodge) based trek, with meals available at the lodges. Tents, however, are not necessary if you choose the Everest region. It too can be a teahouse trek since there are lodges at reasonable intervals all the way from Jiri and Lukla on up. You are never very far from a can of Coca Cola or a Mars bar. Both treks can be done on your own. Get the necessary permits and perhaps hire a porter and you are good to go.
Length of time: The Annapurna Circuit takes about three weeks; my High Passes of Everest trek also took about three weeks. There are all sorts of route variations possible in both areas to create different hikes.
Roads: Annapurna’s weak spot, though addressed by the NATT. Not at all an issue in Sagarmatha Park but do expect to step aside for porters and yaks on the trail from Lukla to Namche Bazaar and beyond. Neither trek is a wilderness trek, which took a while for me, a Canadian hiker used to total bush with not a soul between me and the North Pole, to understand. When I finally realized that what I was really on was a pilgrimage – a mountain puja, if you will – with other pilgrims sharing the trail with me, I felt much better! In the end, there can’t be that much traffic going up the Marsyangdi valley to make the walk unbearable. A combination of the NATT trails and reasonable expectations will make a difference.
Level of difficulty: The Annapurna Circuit is a moderate-level trek. By the time you get to the one major challenge – the pass at Thorung La (5416 m or 17,769 ft) – you should be well-acclimatized. During the Everest trek we came close to or surpassed this height on six different occasions, the three major passes (Kongma La, Cho La, and Renzo La) plus three peaks, including Kala Pathar and Gokyo Ri. You also spend far more time at higher altitude on an Everest trek than you do on the Annapurna Circuit. A number of my Everest trekking group had the so-called Khumbu Cough; I don’t think there is an Annapurna equivalent! I do worry about acclimatization issues now that people are able to bus far up the Marsyangdi valley in a day instead of walking up over five or six days. Annapurna still requires adequate acclimatization time.
Views: if we’re talking about mountain views, the Everest region wins on this one, which is hardly a slight on the views which a walk around the Annapurna Massif provides. What you will see more of in Annapurna is a variety of terrain, from sub-tropical all the way up to the alpine zone. if you choose to start your visit to the Khumbu region at jiri instead of Lukla, then you will get to walk through some of the same terrain that the early days of the Annapurna Circuit presents.
Culture: the Annapurna Circuit wins on this one, which is hardly a slight on the Tibetan Buddhist culture of the Sherpa people of the Khumbu Valley. What there is in the Annapurna region is a greater variety of cultural groups (which you may not even notice if you don’t inform yourself about the differences!). Both treks offer many opportunities to contemplate various dimensions of religious expression, from architecture to clothing to ritual. So which one to choose?
Given the various factors which might make a person pick one or the other, only you can answer this question. I do know that there is no bad answer!
Take a look at this fabulous video made by someone who has been to Annapurna recently. Nepal and its people are still there to enchant.In September of 2013 Grant Rawlinson has uploaded a great video “Walk the Annapurna Circuit in 3D” on Youtube. See it below – it gives you an idea of what the walk is like.
Of my posts on the Annapurna Circuit itself, which I will soon add to the millions of great posts that other trekkers have already put out there, Thorung La: The High Point of The Annapurna Circuit has some pix and maps and more discussion of the potential dangers.
The tripadviser website has a forum dedicated to questions related to Annapurna. Check out its Annapurna Region Travel Forum here for current and informed discussion of issues you may be wondering about.
A useful post with all sorts of up-to-date information about the logistics of doing the Annapurna Circuit can be found here on Wandering Sasquatch’s travel blog. It will make you feel more at ease with planning a self-supported trek.
Lonely Planet recently (January 2016) released the 10th edition of its Nepal trekking guide – Trekking In The Nepal Himalaya . The chapter on the Annapurna region can be downloaded for $5. It provides excellent maps and answers all the questions a walker might have. Definitely a good investment.
Another recent book (published Jan 30, 2013) is Annapurna: A Trekker’s Guide published by Cicerone and written by Sian Pritchard-Jones and Bob Gibbons. It replaces the previous guide written by Kev Reynolds. I have a few of the Cicerone guidebooks and like them a lot.
If you are not familiar with the Cicerone guides, Google Books (here) has the first 68 pages of the Pritchard-Jones/Gibbons edition of Annapurna: A Trekker’s Guide.
You’ll find enough useful information to make checking it out it worth your time – and may help you to decide that it is worth having either for planning or to take along in your pack.
Update – Post-April 2015 Earthquakes
While the Annapurna region was not hit with avalanches and mud slides in the way that the Langtang Valley was, the circuit was closed for three months. On July 23, 2015 it reopened. (See here for the Reuters news item.) A week later monsoon-triggered landslides NW of Pokhara destroyed the village of Lumle.)
Trip Advisor has an active Annapurna forum with a few threads on the situation post-earthquake. See here for the latest contributions from travellers on the ground in the Annapurna region – and elsewhere in the country.
I guess the bigger question these days is – Is it right to visit Nepal so soon after such a catastrophe?
Given the coming rainy season, the next few months are not prime tourist and trekking time anyway. But October is coming. Visitors who treat their hosts with compassion and respect – and do not use the situation to bargain prices down even more – will provide the guides and porters and teahouse owners and everyone else involved with the trekker infrastructure around the circuit with a reason for hope and an injection of money to feed their families.