Previous Post: Day 2 – Lafleche Point to South of Canoe Pass
Day 3 – From Canoe Pass to Below Portage Channel Dam
- distance: 27 km
- time: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
- portages/rapids: 1/0: ~570 m (FoFR says 600m), around the channel cut, easy trail for the most part, especially near to and after the road.
- weather: sunny all day, light wind from NW
- campsite: CS304 w/TB up the hill; room for multiple tents however nice spots for a 4-person not so much
- GPS tracks – 2019 French River (3.2Mb Dropbox file)
- Federal Gov’t (Natural Resources Canada) Topos: Noelville 041 I 01 and Nipissing 31 L 04
- Parks Ontario Map – Restoule and the Upper French River
We were on the water early and heading to Gibraltar Point and another narrow channel with a warning to boaters to slow down. Gibraltar’s vertical rock face had us looking for evidence of pictographs. We knew that Selwyn Dewdney had seen something here on a visit in 1960. In Indian Rock Paintings of the Great Lakes he wrote:
The paintings on “Gibraltar”, as it is called locally, are badly weathered, and little can be deciphered but a few canoes. [, p.93]
Other than the four canoes, he also noted
- a stick figure,
- a round smudge,
- and some horizontal and vertical lines.
More recently (the early to mid-1980s) there was apparently graffiti on some of the rock face (mentioned by Nick Adams in his study – see below) and then some whitewash on top of the graffiti. We really should have spent more time looking for evidence of the ochre canoe images and the covered-over graffiti.
As it was, all we saw in our quick scan was a painted name that someone felt compelled to leave behind. If you visit, you may want to give the rock face a more intensive examination than we did! Also, a mid-afternoon visit would mean the sun would be at your back and lighting up the rock face. That may bring out detail that we did not see. Good luck!
The Kennedy Island Pictograph Site:
Just around the corner from Gibraltar Point, we approached the rock face pictured in the image below. Along with the Gibraltar site, Dewdney had examined this site in 1960.
Site #80…is in clear, strong pigment. Only the thunderbird, turned on its side, is somewhat obscured by lichen. The stick figures remind us of those at Diamond Lake and Scotia Lake. Among the others are a canoe, a pig-like bear, and a likely fish. [93-94]
And that is it for his cursory treatment of this site, which hosts the single largest collection of rock paintings on the French River system.
As we paddled towards the site, our attention was first drawn to a metal plaque a few feet to the north. The Island’s name is Kennedy; the massive plaque explains why. We did wonder why they chose to place it so close to the Anishinaabe pictographs.
To the south and below the plaque is the panel of rock paintings. It covers a small .6 sq. meter area. Also evident below the plaque on the right-hand bottom corner of the white-painted square is what may well be another image, badly faded and indecipherable.
As for the main panel, pictured below, it has over the years been seen by many boaters staying at nearby fishing lodges and cottages, as well as the probable descendants of those who painted the images some two or three hundred years ago.
A study by Nick Adams, a field archaeologist in Ontario’s Ministry of Culture and Recreation, published in 1985 provides some analysis. [See here for a pdf copy.]
Adams contrasts the general condition of this site with the Gibraltar Point site –
…the proximity of the Kurtz cottage clearly discourages would be vandals from paying any attention to the site. Another nearby pictograph site in a more isolated location [i.e. the Gibraltar Point site] has not been so fortunate and many of the paintings there have been painted over with recent graffiti.
Another more recent source is Thor Conway’s Discovering Rock Art: A Personal Journey With Tribal Elders (2016). An entire chapter is dedicated to the French River and the Kennedy Island site is given some coverage. As well, an explanation offered as to the meaning of the panel and the relationship of the various images to each other.
The most vivid images are captured in the photo below. These may
- be newer than the other images or
- have been painted with a better formulation of the iron oxide powder/fish oil “paint” or
- have weathered better than the images closer to the water surface.
Using Adams’ paper to identify the images, here is what we see –
So – what does it all mean?
My guess is that various “painters” over an extended period of time visited the site and left their particular image(s) for shamanistic or vision-quest reasons. While the animal figures on the top right are vivid and deeply coloured, the dog or wolf image on the bottom left is badly faded. So too is what looks like another Y-shaped figure below the bear and to the right of the beaver (skin). Even more, remnants of other faded images have been painted over. Some flaking has occurred – see the thunderbird’s triangular body for a section that has flaked off.
I will admit that it does seem odd that they would choose a site so close to major summer tribal sites at Frank’s Bay and Campbell Bay, no more than seven kilometers away. Other sites we have visited – the Cliff Lake and Artery Lake sites come to mind – are isolated and require some effort to get to. However, the channel between Eliot Island and Kennedy Island is somewhat tucked away from the main passage to the Lake Nipissing outlet at Chaudiere Falls and would have seen little traffic.
While I resisted the temptation to create a narrative for the collection of images drawn over a period of many years by various people from their common mythological image bank, there is a more satisfying alternative that most people are drawn to!
Indeed, the human impulse is to find (and even impose) meaning on random events, objects, or marks placed close to each other. Think of what we have done with stars or Tarot cards or severe weather events! We love explanations in the form of stories and coming up with one for this collection of images is certainly possible. While neither Dewdney or Adams recounts a story that they heard from the distant descendants of those who painted the images, Thor Conway includes several in his chapter on the French River.
One story connects the pictographs to the supposed massacre of a 300-to-400-strong Iroquois raiding party during the great Algonkian-Iroquois War of the mid-1600s. The stick figures represent the headless Iroquois warriors, while the Thunderbird leads the Nipissing warriors, represented by their clan totem animals. Even the possible canine image is incorporated in the story; it is connected to a white dog sacrifice ritual practised by the Nipissings.
The Lake Nipissing Outlet Dams:
After our brief stop at Kennedy Island, we switched into “git ‘er dun” paddle mode and covered the 14 kilometers to the top of the portage around the Portage Channel Dam! There was a bit of wind blowing our way and we made use of the string of islands to avoid the boat traffic on the main channel. Our cameras did not come out for a couple of hours as nothing really caught our eye.
Perhaps another time we’ll slow down and visit the Dokis First Nation museum on Okikendawt Island. Another thing we could do is visit the Big Chaudière Dam, largest of the three dams which control the water level of Lake Nipissing:
- Big Chaudière Dam – the original opened in 1916; replaced by the current dam in 2016. It is made up of north and south channel gates.
- Little Chaudière Dam – the original opened in 1916; current dam opened in 1996.
- Portage Channel Dam – first opened in 1951; replaced by the second one in 1992; replaced by the current one, which also serves as a 10 MW hydroelectric facility, in 2015. The Dokis band invested in its construction.
The Portage Channel was created to provide a third major outlet for Lake Nipissing water. The deep channel was blasted through the rock outcrop. Work started in 1946 and the dam opened in 1951. Of the three dams, only this one has been upgraded to make use of the water flow to generate hydro-electricity. We would have to portage around it. The satellite view below shows our approach from the top right – i.e. the northeast.
The map below – taken from the essential book on the French River by Toni Harting – shows both the original pre-Channel Dam portage trail and the one which the dam and the man-made channel made necessary.
We paddled to the end of the bay and the beginning of the 570-meter portage trail, indicated by a portage sign and a visible landing, even given the high water. Looking back from the landing the safety boom is visible, as are other dam-related buildings.
The trail was in good shape and we were at the put-in about forty minutes after setting off from the take-out point pictured above. It would have been faster had I not somehow gotten disoriented on my way back to the canoe, after having dropped off my share of the bag carry at the halfway point! The photo below shows the put-in below the dam. By the time I arrived the Helinox chairs were set up, water was being filtered and lunch was being organized. A 30-minute post-lunch snooze helped to beat the heat of the mid-day.
Cradle Rapids Portage:
After our break, we pushed on to Cradle Rapids. Higher than usual water levels made it a bit more work but a combination of carry, line and run got us through this section in about 45 minutes. Perhaps because we were among the first of the season to go down, there was little evidence of a portage trail and we felt like we were improvising one as we pushed ahead. One thing we did not do was stop to look for the solitary pictograph at Cradle Rapids. We didn’t even take any pix, so focussed as we were on just getting the thing dealt with. Too bad! Here is our GPS track of our passing through the Cradle Rapids area –
We did not know it at the time but after the trip on looking more closely at the maps in the Toni Harting book on French River, an alternative popped up. Harting labels it Leonard Portage. If you know anything about this possible alternative portage around Cradle Rapids, please make a comment or email me at email@example.com. The Leonard looks like a less complicated and faster way around!
Update: thanks to a reader (see John’s comment below) I can confirm that the Leonard Portage exists. Unlike my estimate of 120 meters, it is marked as a 55-meter one; it ends up to the east of where my line did which explains the shorter distance. Here is a segment of the official Parks Ontario map which shows the immediate area of the dams and Cradle Rapids –
Done with Cradle Rapids, it was on to the number of official campsites further down, beginning with the one on Boom Island.
Passing by CS 301 at the south end of Boom Island, we took a quick look and figured we could do better. Off to the next one – CS304.
The scale of the Friends of French River map is such that sometimes the exact location of the campsite is not clear. We paddled south along the island you see in the image above and then realized that CS304 might be on the other side! When we got there we found a site a half-grade better the one that we had just left. It was 4:15 – and we had done 27 kilometers. We decided to make do with mediocre instead of pushing on to the next one.
The next morning we paddled by and checked out CS306 about 1.5 km. downriver. It would have been a much better choice! None of the campsites looked like they had been used yet this year and, given the proximity to the fishing lodges down at Wolseley Bay, are probably more used by fishing parties for shore lunches than by canoe trippers.
Some of the upper French campsites are outfitted with tables and, at 304, with a left-behind cooler! Also typical of these sites are three or four fire pits where one would do. 304 was one instance where we spent some time eliminating a couple of fire pits from the site.