Selwyn Dewdney, Norval Morrisseau & the Ojibwe Pictograph Tradition

pollock-morrisseau-dewdney in the early 1960's

Jack Pollock, Norval Morrisseau, and Selwyn Dewdney in the late 1960’s

Images enlarge with a click; blue text leads to additional info with a click.

It started off with Anishinaabe (that is, Ojibwe or Chippewa)  pictographs and ended up with coffee-table-sized art books dedicated to the work of Norval Morrisseau.  Last year in preparation for a canoe trip that took us down Wabakimi’s Cliff Lake, I found Selwyn Dewdney’s Indian Rock Paintings of the Great Lakes.  Not only was I introduced to a wealth of Ojibwe pictograph sites in the Canadian Shield, but I found an unknown, at least to me, new trail to ramble down.

My grandfather told me once that nobody, no matter how hard they tried, could remember all the legends; otherwise, the whole of northwestern Ontario would be covered in pictographs.

      (Norval Morrisseau, Return To The House Of Invention. p.13)

I  learned of Dewdney’s meeting with a young Norval Morrisseau in Red Lake in 1960, a meeting which led to a decade-plus friendship based on their common passion for preserving Anishinaabe culture.  For Dewdney, an artist by training,  it was the fading rock paintings or pictographs of the Canadian Shield. Dr. K.E. Kidd, a professor of anthropology at U of T at the time, had personally seen some of the pictographs in Quetico in the mid-1950’s and was keen on further study. He writes:

Kidd on Dewdney selection

For Morrisseau it was the very survival of the Anishinaabe world view that was at stake – the legends and myths that fewer and fewer of his people remembered. He was about 28 when he met Dewdney. He had just started painting seriously a couple of years before and had sold his first few paintings to people in the Red Lake area in northwestern Ontario. He would live there with his wife Harriet and their growing family from 1958 to 1963, first on Mckenzie Island and then in Cochenour.

Red Lake:Mckenzie Island and Cochenour

the Red Lake area in northwestern Ontario – Mckenzie Island and Cochenour – Google map here

I am Norval Morrisseau...

This was Morrisseau’s impetus for first putting paint brush to birchbark and animal hide and cardboard and kraft paper – whatever medium he could find.

The Storyteller- The Artist and His Grandfather

The Storyteller: The Artist and His Grandfather..late 1970’s

Norval had been born on the Sand Point Reserve near Beardmore in 1932, but had spent the formative years of his youth with his maternal grandparents, Grace and  Moses Potan Nanakonagos, in the Gull Bay  area on the west side of Lake Nipigon. (Check out the Google map view here.)

His grandmother was a devote Roman Catholic and from her he learned the basics of the Christian narrative of salvation.  It was Potan, his mishomis, who taught him about the world view of the great Anishinaabe, of their myths and legends, of the  Medewiwin and the birchbark scrolls.

Later when asked by Dewdney about his family background while they were working on a book together, Morrisseau would say this:

It is only his name I want to mention, so that in one way or the other his good heart, his good teachings shall be repayed. Of my actual father I saw little… I knew he was not my father but I began to love and respect him more and more as I advanced in years, as this was all a part of me and I must carry on his wisdom.

Norval would face some opposition as he first brought Anishinaabe stories to life in paint. Some elders felt he was breaking ancient taboos.  It may have been that the missionaries had done such a good job making them feel ashamed of their culture that they felt it would be better left hidden and unknown.

Norval Morrisseau - it is my destiny

anishinaabe father and son greet jesuit

The Gift (1975) …Anishinaabe father and son greet Jesuit – note the smallpox!

1970 Thunderbird and Snake - two key players in Anishinaabe cosmology

Thunderbird and Snake – two key figures in Anishinaabe cosmology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norval received encouragement and advice from  Dr. Joseph Weinstein, the doctor in Cochenour who had received art training in Paris and knew Picasso, and from his wife Esther, who was one of Norval’s first customers).  As well,  the mine managers at the mill where Morrisseau worked were fairly supportive of Norval’s painting  and he was able to spend more time on his passion – painting the truth and knowledge he had been given by his grandfather. Bob Shepard, an OPP constable stationed on Mckenzie Island, was also impressed with Morrisseau’s talent.  He would get his friend Selwyn Dewdney to meet with Norval in 1960 when he heard that Dewdney would be in the area on his pictograph site quest.

Morrisseau’s circle of friends would get bigger in 1962  when a CPR train conductor – and a solid Conservative Party supporter – from the Kenora area mentioned to Senator Allister Grosart while on the campaign trail that a talented and deserving native artist  could use some help. Grosart suggested that he tell Morrisseau to write him a letter.  Letter and some art work soon followed and by late that year Grosart had sent Norval $900. (that is $7000. in 2014 dollars) so that he could devote himself more fully to his art work.

Norval and Harriet with Serpent Legend

Norval & Harriet in 1962

(1962) Serpent Legend

(1962) Serpent Legend

The Dewdney-Morrisseau relationship led to a wider audience for Morrisseau’s art. Another chance encounter – this time with the young Toronto art gallery owner Jack Pollock – would also provide a major push. He had been hired by the Ontario Government to conduct a series of art seminars in northern Ontario in the summer of 1962.  The last stop of his six-week tour was the mining community of  Beardmore.  He describes the moment he first met Morrisseau –

Pollock quote

He would experience instant stardom and  the exhilarating  “up” of a sold-out exhibit of his paintings at Pollock’s gallery in Toronto in 1962 –  and the “down” of all but being ignored the next year when the same gallery hosted an even better collection of paintings.

In a magazine article written for the Jan-Feb 1963 issue of Canadian Art Dewdney provided an eloquent introduction for those curious about this Indian painter who had seemingly come out of nowhere.  He concluded with this prescient assessment–

 This is no ordinary man. And I predict, whatever label we may finally bestow on his work, he will continue to produce extraordinary paintings.

[See here for the entire article, definitely worth the read.]

The deepening relationship between Dewdney and Morrisseau  also led to a written work –  Legends of My People The great Ojibway.   It was written and illustrated by Morrisseau and edited by Dewdney from a two manuscripts which Norval had sent him – the first in late 1960, some three months after their first meeting,  and a supplemental manuscript two years later.  It was published by The Ryerson Press in 1965.

book cover

Harriet, Norval, Victoria and Pierre Morrisseau_Toronto_March 1964_photo by Globe and Mail, Toronto

Harriet, Norval, Victoria and Pierre Morrisseau_Toronto_March 1964_photo by Globe and Mail, Toronto

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The ups and downs of the early 1960’s would only become more dramatic as Morrisseau grappled with personal demons related to his childhood – a father who abandoned the family,  two years spent in residential school in Fort William, and the inner tension between his traditional beliefs and the Christianity which was also an essential part of his upbringing.

1964. Self-Portrait entitled Devoured by Demons

These demons resulted in a growing problem with the alcohol he turned to as a solution. The details of Morrisseau’s personal life make for some depressing reading.

So too does the ongoing controversy about his artistic legacy, specifically the issue of real versus fake Morrisseaus. Pollock had already alluded to this issue in his autobiography published in the late 1980’s.  The Canadian Encyclopedia has a good summary here and a recent (2014) CBC story  here brings it up to date.

This post will mostly focus on the early Norval Morrisseau from the late 1950’s to about 1970. What I wanted to highlight was his depiction of various figures from traditional Ojibwe myth and legend that can also been seen in pictograph form by paddlers in the boreal forests of the Canadian Shield.

 

the front cover of a classic

the front cover of a classic

While Morrisseau may have derived inspiration from those pictographs, there are a couple of things which should be remembered: 1. he didn’t see that many actual pictographs; and  2. most of the still-discernible ones were quite basic and rudimentary.

Until 1962 he had never been outside of the Lake Nipigon area and Fort William/Port Arthur (now known as Thunder Bay) was the biggest town he had been to.  He had not been to Agawa Rock; it seems unlikely that he had been to Quetico. His grandfather may have taken him to pictograph sites in the Beardmore or Gull Bay areas of Lake Nipigon.  During his Red Lake years it seems unlikely that he visited the Larus or Artery Lake pictograph sites on the Bloodvein River system. More important that the question of how many actual pictographs he saw or which ones is this point – the simple fact of seeing them was both an act of confirmation and inspiration for him in his desire to turn Anishinaabe words and legends into images.

Along with the rock paintings he would have seen on the vertical rock faces in the boreal forest, he would also have seen the sketches and photographs  that Selwyn Dewdney was collecting for what would come out in book form in 1962 as Indian Rock Paintings of the Great Lakes.  It would contain descriptions of 103 sites that he had visited from 1957 to 1961.  Like Morrisseau he was an artist first and foremost; like Morrisseau he had a passionate interest in Ojibwe culture.  He most likely shared the sketches and photos with Morrisseau during the time they spent together in Red Lake and later in London where the Morrisseau family lived for a while with the Dewdneys.  In 1967 the U of Toronto Press would release a second edition of Dewdney’s  book which contained details and images of another 60 or so pictograph sites.

While Dewdney never misses a chance to thank the  person who informed him about or took him to a particular site, Morrisseau’s name never comes up in this context . One thing they clearly did not do together was sit in a canoe on some lake in northwestern Ontario and look for or examine pictographs. However, the following quote from Indian Rock Paintings of The Great Lakes (both editions) does make clear what led Dewdney to work with Morrisseau on the collection of myths and legends of the Objibwe.

In addition to the general and special acknowledgements made herein Mr. Dewdney is anxious to record the following:

“Above all I should like to record the invaluable aid in tracking down ethnological clues furnished by the late Chief James Horton of Manitou Rapids. A gentle man of unfailing courtesy and unpretentious dignity, greatly gifted as a teller of Ojibwa tales, his death was an incalculable loss. Of other Ojibwa who generously shared with me the lore of their forefathers, I should particularly like to mention Messrs. Norval Morriseau and Thomas Paishk of Red Lake, Mr. Jack Bushy of Ignace, and Mr. Charles Friday of Seine River…”

For Morrisseau another source of Anishinaabe inspiration would have been the birchbark scrolls that his both grandfather and Dewdney had access to.  Add to this Morrisseau’s passionate  interest in the legends of his people and his ability to take in and make his own ideas from other sources – he spent hours in the Weinsteins’ library at Cochenour looking through their art books and their collection of cultural artifacts – and you have to appreciate his genius in coming up with a strikingly personal artistic vision.  In doing so he ended up creating a style of painting known as Woodlands.  It is almost as if to be an Anishinaabe artist now is to draw, like Morrisseau did, from the wellspring of indigenous myth and legend.

One of Morrisseau’s most painted images is that of Mishipeshu (just one of a dozen possible spellings!) Here is one Morrisseau painting from the late 1950’s which he was living in Red Lake but before he had met Dewdney –

morrisseau-paintings-003

 

and here is a drawing from the early 1960’s  which he created for the Legends of My People The Great Ojibway book –

Mishipizheu

Mishipizheu – a Norval Morrisseau drawing from the early 1960’s

At the other end of Lake Superior from where Morrisseau grew up is perhaps the most famous pictograph panel in the Canadian Shield – that of Mishipeshu and the serpent at Agawa Rock.

Mishipizheu pictograph at Agawa Rock

Mishipizheu pictograph at Agawa Rock

Norval Morrisseau. early 1960's Drawing of Mishipizheu and fish

Norval Morrisseau. early 1960’s Drawing of Mishipizheu and fish

Another common image is that of a snake, seen underneath the mishipeshu figure above,  Sometimes the snake is depicted with two horns.

Agawa Rock horned serpent and fish

Agawa Rock fish and medicine snake with horns

Morrisseau Sacred Medicine Snake (1961)

Morrisseau Sacred Medicine Snake (1961)

A drawing for the book Legends of My People shares some of the look of the 1961 painting on kraft paper.

Norval Morrisseau. early 1960's drawing of Sun snake and fire worshippers

Norval Morrisseau. early 1960’s drawing of Sun snake and fire worshippers

Morrisseau 1962 serpent legend

Morrisseau 1962 serpent legend – shamans receiving power from the medicine snake

If Mishipeshu rules the underworld (the world of water) then Thunderbird rules the sky. Morrisseau would return to it repeatedly over his forty-year painting career.  It had a particular resonance for him, and from 1960 onwards he would sign his works with the Ojibwe syllabic letters for  Copper Thunderbird.  Here is a painting from 1965 which combines the thunderbird with the serpent –

Morrisseau. 1965. Thunderbird with Serpent

Morrisseau. 1965. Thunderbird with Serpent

Apparently Morrisseau painted about ten thousand works in his lifetime; it is a good bet that a thousand of them are thunderbirds!  On a recent visit to The Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto to see some Native Canadian art work, I found out that the gallery doesn’t really exhibit work produced by Canadian First Nations People!  About the only thing I found was a series of six Morrisseau panels entitled  Man Changing into Thunderbird from 1977.

Morrisseau - the six panels of Man Changing into Thunderbird at the AGO

Morrisseau – the six panels of Man Changing into Thunderbird at the AGO

And here is the sixth and last panel from an artist at the height of his creative power:

thunderbird-panel-6

While his use of colour became much more pronounced as he developed, certain elements can be found in his paintings across the decades. The lines of power and communication and inter-relatedness, the x-ray view of animals and people, the sun and life circle…they’re there in the sixties too.  Note the claws of the thunderbird from 1977 and compare them to the claws on the thunderbird from the early 1960’s.

Morrisseau. early 1960's drawing of thunderbirds

Morrisseau. early 1960’s drawing of thunderbirds from Legends of My People

Here is an even earlier work from the late 1950’s which Morrisseau did on birchbark while he was in the Red lake area:

morrisseau-paintings-001

And below is a pictograph of undetermined age (maybe 100 years old, maybe 200)  from the south end of Cliff Lake on the Pikitigushi River system with a very basic but still effective take on the Thunderbird done in ochre.

Cliff Lake Thunderbird pictograph

Here is one last Thunderbird image – it is entitled Shaman Rider and dates from 1972. Like a lot of Morrisseau’s early work it was done on kraft paper.

Morrisseau. 1972. Shaman Rider.

Morrisseau. 1972. Shaman Rider.

Some other drawings found in Legends of My People The Great Ojibway can be seen below –

Mikinak (Turtle) and Shaking Tent

early 1960’s Norval Morrisseau Mikinak (Turtle) and Shaking Tent drawing

In Anishinaabe mythology The Turtle is the interpreter of the manitous (the spirits of all beings and things); the shaman would enter the specially-constructed tent and commune with the spirits.  Mikinak and the tent would also be recurring themes in Morrisseau’s work over the years.  Here is an example from the end of the 1960’s –

1969 Mikinuk and the tent

early 1960's Morrisseau drawing of Beaver as clan totem

early 1960’s Morrisseau drawing of Beaver as clan totem

The word “totem” is of Ojibwe origin (“dodaem”) and refers to the animal associated with each of the various clans that make up the community.  Above we see the beaver, one such totem,  and the wigwams representing those who belong to the Beaver clan.

norval morrisseau (early 1960's) drawing of maymaygweshi

Norval Morrisseau (early 1960’s) drawing of maymaygwayshi

(1960) Birchbark painting of maymaygweshi

(1960)Birchbark painting – maymaygwayshi

Dewdney sketch of maymaygwayshuwuk

Dewdney sketch of maymaygwayshuwuk

The Art of Norval Morrisseau_1979 front cover

The Art of Norval Morrisseau_1979 front cover

Of the books which examine and show examples of Morrisseau’s work, I found the 1979 The Art of Norval Morrisseau to be the best introduction to his life and work.  it has an introduction by Lister Sinclair, a long “personal note” by Jack Pollock, an informative personal essay by Morrisseau himself, and some excellent background on Morrisseau’s “image bank” and style that help to draw more meaning out of the many works included.

Morrisseau's painting for a late 1970's Bruce Cockburn album

Morrisseau’s painting for a late 1970’s Bruce Cockburn album

morrisseau ebookLooking for information on Morrisseau’s life and times led me to a couple of very readable and informative books, one an e-book available at the Amazon web site and the other a Toronto Public Library holding.  The e-book, whose front cover is to the right, is an adaptation of a print book written by Christine Penner Polle and published in 2008, draws on many sources – print material and personal reminiscences – to flesh out the story of Morrisseau from birth to the 1970’s.  It is a $10. instant Kindle download and is available here. It is worth it.

A Picasso in the North CountryThe other book (front cover to the left) is a darker examination of Norval’s life and work, also focusses especially on the period up to the mid-1970’s. The writer James Stevens, who had actually contracted with Morrisseau to write his biography, uncovers it all – the drunkenness, the family abandonment, the sexual escapades – I’ve already used the word “depressing” to describe how it reads.

It should be noted that in the mid-1970’s Morrisseau embraced the teachings of the new (created in 1965) movement of Eckankar and subsequently seems to have reinterpreted his life and Anishinaabe/Christian background using this new religious paradigm. It is visible in the very first Morrisseau painting used in this post – The Storyteller: The Artist and His Grandfather.  In this painting from the late 1970’s,  Potan is depicted in the left panel and Norval in the right one. Above him are the letters “HU”, a sacred sound in Eckankar much like AUM in Hinduism.

In early July of 2014 I surfed my way to a perceptive and well-written piece which makes extensive use of the Morrisseau-Dewdney letter correspondence from the early 1960’s to flesh out the relationship between the two.  It may be the most insightful piece on Morrisseau that I’ve read. Perhaps reading all the other stuff first gave me a background to understand the argument it presents.  Entitled Norval Morrisseau: Artist As Shaman it is by Barry Ace, who is Chief Curator in the Indian Arts Center at the Department of Indian and Northern Development. He also met Morrisseau on several occasions, the first being in 1995 in Ottawa.

norval_morrisseau. 1970s

Morrisseau died in Toronto in December of 2007 after a decade’s struggle with Parkinson’s Disease.This summary of his life from the Ottawa Citizen seems to be a fair look at the man. This CBC news item from 2006 on the occasion of the opening of a major retrospective of his work at the national Gallery in Ottawa shows some of his later work from his prime.  He is buried next to his wife at the Sandy Lake First Nations Reserve to the north of Red Lake, Ontario. (See here for the Google map.)

Morrisseau - birth place:grave site

Selwyn Dewdney died in 1979 in London, Ontario after having spent more time recording and documenting  pictograph sites across Canada.  In the 1970’s he also did major work on the birchbark scrolls associated with the Medewiwin, the  Anishinaabe society of shamans. His book The Sacred Scrolls of the Southern Ojibway was published in 1975. Daylight In the Swamp After his death his son Keewatin edited what was essentially Dewdney’s memoirs and the result was the very readable  Daylight in the Swamp (1997).  Since Dewdney’s own father had been the Anglican Bishop of Keewatin District from the 1920’s, Selwyn had accompanied his father throughout the north as a young man.  

He did, however,  embrace a teaching career focussed on the visual arts  as opposed to following his father Alfred’s religious calling. It was this background that helped make him the ideal person not only to work on the “rock paintings”  but also bring Norval Morrisseau to our attention.  

Dewdney certainly provided me with the motivation not only to spend more time delving into the incredible artistic legacy of Copper Thunderbird but also to  paddle the rivers and lakes of the Canadian Shield to visit the sites he had recorded from the late 1950’s to the mid-1970’s. Our visits to the Pikitigushi River system’s Cliff Lake and to  Mazinaw Lake in Bon Echo Provincial Park were just two of the many on which he served as our guide.

The Pictographs of Wabakimi’s Cliff Lake – Selwyn Dewdney Takes Us On a Tour!

The Mazinaw Pictographs: Listening For Algonquian Echoes

dewdney plaque at Agawa Rock

plaque near the Agawa Rock pictographs

Update – June 2016

Something not disclosed to the reader has meant that  parts of my post may seem a bit picky and obtuse. This is especially true of the section about how many  pictograph sites Morrisseau actually visited.

See here for the link to an online article on Norval Morrisseau.  It deals briefly with his relationship with Dewdney. Supposedly written by an Ojibwe elder, it shows none of the wisdom and concern for truth one might associate with a person claiming such a role.

_________________________________________________________________

Where In The World Is Norval Morrisseau? 

An upcoming post will focus on the question on where in Ontario one can go to see Norval Morrisseau’s  work.  Already mentioned was my disappointing visit to The Art Gallery of Ontario.  I left there thinking – “They’ve got room in the basement for a collection of model ships, but they can’t find any space for Norval Morrisseau and Carl Ray and other more contemporary First Nations artists?  Yes, I know – they’ve got some Inuit stuff and that is as it should be but there’s way more to show!”   Read this if you want more background on the AGO and its treatment of indigenous art over the years.

 

Maybe you can find Morrisseau here in Kent Monkman’s  massive and stunning 2007 work titled The Academy which I’ll admit I found in a room at the AGO –

the-academy-by-kent-monkman-2007

 Before and After the HorizonUpdate – July 28, 2014. Well, who would have guessed!  Just opened at the Art Gallery of Ontario a few days ago is the Before and After the Horizon: Anishinaabe Artists of the Great Lakes exhibit. Its previous stop was the National Museum of the American Indian  in NYC where it had a ten-month run from August of 2013 to June of this year.  It will be at the AGO until November 25 and there is a free showing on July 30 from 6:30 to 8:30.

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9 Responses to Selwyn Dewdney, Norval Morrisseau & the Ojibwe Pictograph Tradition

  1. J. Bruce Paker says:

    Great article about one of my favorite subjects, Selwyn Dewdney. I wish I could have met him, I did get to know his wife, Irene, quite well and over the years I have been fortunate to collect all of the books in your text. Great work!

    • true_north says:

      J.B. – thanks for reading! I think that Selwyn Dewdney was a great Canadian whose work should be much better known. Back in the day there would have been at least a commemorative postage stamp to honour his legacy! In the past year his writings have certainly opened my eyes to all sorts of riches that i didn’t even know were there.

      • Anonymous says:

        Oral tradition credits Morrisseau learning how to paint from an elder at Red Lake – she taught Morrisseau the basis of his form via a traditional painting technique. I wish I could recall her name, but memory fails at this moment…

      • true_north says:

        Anon, to use the phrase “oral tradition” to refer to events from the 1950’s seems a bit odd! It has been a while since I was immersed in all the details of Morrisseau’s life and development as an artist. I don’t recall reading anything where Morrisseau himself or other people who knew him back then atributed his start as a painter to someone in Red Lake teaching him “the basis of his form via a “traditional painting technique”.

        In fact, what does “traditional painting technique” even mean? It makes it sound as if Norval carried on a style and a vision that had been a part of Anishinaabe culture forever. This is hardly the case. If the story were true, it would have merited mention by someone over the years to explain the incredible art he produced. You’d think that Norval himself at some time would have acknowledged his debt or appreciation, no?

        My take is that Norval was a true original genius who got his inspiration from the figures of his grandfather’s Objiwe myths and legends. At first he expressed them using traditional imagery as found in the pictographs but soon became much more skillful and went far beyond those rudimentary ochre rock paintings to produce truly original works.

        You do raise an interesting point – when did Norval first start painting? Was it at Red Lake when he was already in his mid-twenties or was it earlier? I think I may have to reread some of the biographies to see if there is a definite answer!

  2. megcrawcour says:

    Hi I wonder if you can help – I recently read an article on the Obijwa Indians – it was written by a canoeist and he was travelling with his wife. I cannot find it, but I like the perspective if gave. It did mention Schoolcraft and Conway. If you know of this article, please let me know.

    Thank you for your webpage – it was very informative.

  3. Duncan Neganigwane Pheasant. says:

    Inspired by norval morriseau while in high school,back in the seventies and continue to paint in the woodland Ojibwe style today.

    • true_north says:

      Duncan, I took a look at a couple of Youtube videos that show your work and can see that Woodland Ojibwe style you refer to! Morrisseau certainly touched a generation of Anishinaabe artists. He had hoped that his paintings and the book he worked on with Dewdney – The Legends of My People The Great Ojibway – would keep alive knowledge of the old ways and stories. Your paintings tell me he did.

  4. Fascinating article! Selwyn Dewdney was my grandfather, and while I was just five years old when he died, I have fond memories of him as a funny and doting man.

    • true_north says:

      Michael, stumbling upon your grandfather’s book on the pictographs opened up a whole new world to me three years ago that I have been exploring ever since. Happy to hear you read the post! I have a deep admiration for your grandfather and his contribution to furthering our understanding of Anishinaabe culture.

Your comments and questions are always appreciated, as are any suggestions on how to make this post more useful to future travellers. Just drop me a line or two!

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